Livermorium (Lv) is name of element 116. It is an atomic element, but not a chemical element.



Nuclear properties of livermorium are of negligible importance to Chemistry. Wikipedia's(1) article addresses properties of those isotopes which are currently under professional scrutiny and Elements Wiki(2) addresses all others in a cautious way. The two important nuclear properties of Lv are that all its isotopes have half-lives under 1 second and that none of its isotopes descend from ancestors which have longer half-lives.

The element forms naturally in neutron star mergers and supernovae, although the amounts produced are debated. What is certain is that livermorium has vanished below one atom per event concentration within one hour, At the age of one hour, either a merger remnant or a supernova remnant has a temperature in excess of 50000 K. The kind of multiple-charge-center / bound electron involvements which are chemistry are not possible at temperatures were even helium is mainly ionized.

Livermorium does form anyplace energized particles are found. Cosmic rays include ions of U and ions of Fe. Earth's upper atmosphere contains cosmic dust likely to include either U or Fe. Every so often, U + Fe --> Lv occurs. Livermorium even forms in earth's atmosphere, but at an atoms/planet concentration at most - down in noise,


Below 109 K (1 GK) bare Lv nuclei are rare. Binding energy of its 1s electrons is around 0.18 MeV. Only the energetic collisions and high-energy photons found in such environments can keep a nucleus from becoming an ion within about 10-15 sec.

Livermorium is predicted to have the electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p1/22 7p3/22. Predicted ionization energies for the element show the first two electrons (7p3/2) to be easily removable, with predicted ionization energies : 1st = 664 kJ/mol, 2nd = 1330 kJ/mol and 3rd = 2850 kJ/gmol. First and second ionization energies are similar to those of Pb and Bi, but Lv's third ionization energy is closer to Pb's than to Bi's. This shows that subshell splitting becomes important in Period 7.

Interactions between Lv atoms (possible only in a laboratory) and other atoms are relevant because that is the way to acquire knowledge about Lv's actual electron structure. Outside the lab (which need not be on earth), Livermorium's chemistry is about as relevant as that of Octiron.



During mid 2000, scientists at Dubna (JINR) detected livermorium synthesized by the reaction:

This, of course is the 3n channel. The 4n channel, which produces 292Lv, is also active, while both the 2n channel (294Lv) and 5n channel (291Lv) might have been observed (unconfirmed).

The team repeated the experiment in April–May 2005 and detected 8 atoms of livermorium. The measured decay data confirmed the assignment of the discovery isotope as 293Lv. In this run, the team also observed 292Lv in the 4n channel for the first time.[1]

In May 2009, the Joint Working Party reported on the discovery of copernicium and acknowledged the discovery of the isotope 283Cn.[2] This implied the de facto discovery of livermorium, as 291Lv (see below), from the acknowledgment of the data relating to the granddaughter 283Cn, although the actual discovery experiment may be determined as that above.

In 2011, the IUPAC evaluated the Dubna team results and accepted them as a reliable identification of element 116.[3]


Livermorium has been called "eka polonium", but not by people who realize how badly periodicity changes in Period 7. Ununhexium (Uuh) was the temporary IUPAC systematic element name. By now, nobody calls it anything but livermorium.

The name recognizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, within the city of Livermore, California, USA, which collaborated with JINR on the discovery. The city in turn is named after the American rancher Robert Livermore, a naturalized Mexican citizen of English birth, thus demonstrating the importance of Au in superheavy element research.


  1. 1. "Decay Modes and a Limit of Existence of Nuclei"; H. Koura; 4th Int. Conf. on the Chemistry and Physics of Transactinide Elements; Sept. 2011.
  2. "Livermorium"; in Elements Wiki;
  1. Oganessian, Yu. Ts. (2004). "Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions ^{233,238}U, ^{242}Pu, and ^{248}Cm+^{48}Ca". Physical Review C 70: 064609. DOI:10.1103/PhysRevC.70.064609.
  2. R.C.Barber; H.W.Gaeggeler;P.J.Karol;H. Nakahara; E.Verdaci; E. Vogt (2009). "Discovery of the element with atomic number 112" (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 81 (7): 1331. DOI:10.1351/PAC-REP-08-03-05.
  3. (2011) "Discovery of the elements with atomic numbers greater than or equal to 113 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 83 (7): 1. DOI:10.1351/PAC-REP-10-05-01.